Condensed History of the 1st Louisiana Cavalry Regiment, CSA
On August 17, 1862, the Kirby Smith Brigade attacked the Union forces as London, Kentucky and routed Col. Houk's 3rd Tennessee Regiment, capturing near 120 men, 100 wagons and over 400 horses and mules.
On August 23, 1862, Col. Scott and the Kirby Smith Brigade attacked the 3rd Tennessee and 7th Kentucky Cavalry at Big Hill, Ky. After a short but intense battle, Scott's men routed the Union forces, the 7th Kentucky Cavalry in full retreat toward Richmond and the 3rd Tennessee fled into the countryside. The route was so complete that Col. Metcalfe refused to command the 7th Kentucky due to the disgraceful conduct of the men.
On the 30th August, 1862, Col. Scott and the Kirby Smith Brigade, including the 1st Louisiana Cavalry, circled to the West of Richmond and took possession of the roads leading to Lexington. Ambuscades were set up and around 6:00 P.M., the main Union force escaping from Gen. Cleburne's assault on Richmond, ran into the trap. A destructive fire was poured into the retreating union forces and after 60 were killed and many wounded, the entire force surrendered. Col. Scott, with 850 troopers captured over 5,000 officers and men, nine pieces of artillery, large quantity of small arms, and wagons loaded with supplies. Due to darkness and the small number of men that were available to guard prisoners, some slipped away in the night. Among the men taken prisoner were Brig. General Manson and a number of staff officers. The Battle of Richmond, Kentucky was the most complete and thorough victory, by either the Confederate or Union forces, during the entire war.
Total killed, wounded, captured-Union: 5,353 Confederate: 451.
On September 3, 1862, drove the enemy from the town of Frankfort, Capital of Kentucky, and hoisted the battle flag of the 1st Louisiana Cavalry over the capitol building.
On September 4, 1862, drove the enemy from the town of Shelbyville and continued on and burned the railroad bridges outside of town, then returned to Frankfort.
On September 14, 1862, the 1st Louisiana Cavalry fought, dismounted in the first attack on Mumsfordville, Ky., on the right of Col. Chalmers command against the Union garrison of 4,000 men under the command of Col. J. T. Wilder, 17th Indiana Volunteers. The attack failed and the Confederates withdrew. On the 17th of September, after the town had been encircled by Confederates, Col. Wilder surrendered his command to Maj. Genearl Buckner. The capture of Mumsfordville included 4,267 prisoners, 5,000 rifles, 40 artillery pieces, quantities of ammunition, horses, mules and military stores.
The 1st Louisiana Cavalry passed through Lebanon, Ky. on the 25th September and on the 29th of September, attacked 300 cavalry at Womack's Springs and drove in the pickets to within 2 miles of Louisville. October 1st saw the Union move out of Louisville and press the attack on the Confederates. The 1st Louisiana Cavalry covered the retreat of the army to Frankfort.
On October 4, skirmish with Union cavalry near Clay Village, in attempt to draw cavalry out from infantry. Moved on to Frankfort and on the 5th October, cut part of the bridge leading to Frankfort. Guard the bridge on October 8th as more and more companies cross after being driven back by advancing Union army.
Companies A and B of the 1st La. ambush large group of the enemy that were attempting to cross bridge, killing many of them. Later, Col. Scott and Company A, along with a few stragglers, ambushed about 150 of the Yankees, killing and wounding many and driving the enemy into a larger ambush formed by Col Starnes.
After Gen. Bragg failed to press the fight at Perryville, the retreat of the Confederate Armies in Kentucky began. On the 15th of October, Col. John Scott was arrested on orders of Gen. Bragg, on charges of "disobedience of orders" and relieved of command. Col. Wheeler verbally reprimanded Col. Scott and returned him to duty.
In the retreat from Kentucky back to Tennessee, the 1st Louisiana Cavalry was ordered to guard the rear of Bragg's army and to slow the advance of the Union army. On the 23rd of October, the 1st Louisiana returned to Sparta, Tennessee.
On November 27, 1862, General Joseph Johnston ordered the 1st Louisiana Cavalry Regiment sent to the headquarters of General B. Bragg at Murfreesboro immediately. These orders effectively removed the 1st La. from the brigade of Col. John Scott and the army of Gen. K. Smith.
The regiment reached Murfreesboro on the 5th of December and did picket duty for the Right Wing of the Confederate Army until the 30th. On the 31st of December, during the heat of battle, Gen. Pegram led the 1st La. Cavalry Regiment in an attack upon the enemy's trains in their rear. By some misunderstanding of the order, General Pegram and Company A, alone, made the attack and captured 7 wagons and 2 ambulances and about 200 prisoners and, upon the arrival of the rest of the regiment, removed to the Confederate lines.
On the 1st of January, 1863, 1st La. Cavalry, were dismounted and sent forward as skirmishers on the right of Breckenridge's Division and harassed the enemy through the evening of the 2nd. The Sharpshooters of the regiment were engaged on the right at the Battle of Murfreesboro and did excellent work and had only one to receive a wound. The 1st Louisiana Cavalry were with Gen. Breckenridge in his assault on Van Cleve's Division when it was driven back across Stone's River. Only after reinforcements, were the Confederates driven back and at a terrible cost to both sides.
On the 5th of January, 1863, Gen. Bragg decided to withdraw and the 1st Louisiana Cavalry Regiment, again, were charged with acting as the rear guard for the army's retreat and did so until the 5th of January, after which the regiment returned to Kingston, Tennessee.
After a period of inactivity, while camped at Bell's Camp Ground, 9 miles from Knoxville, Tennessee, Brig. Gen. John Pegram began his cavalry invasion of Kentucky on the 11th of March, 1863. With a force of approximately 1500 troopers, with B.G. Pegram commanding one brigade and Col. John Scott commanding the other and the 1st Louisiana Cavalry Regiment under the command of Lt. Col. James Nixon, in Scott's brigade.